Academic Papers

Exposure to Inclusive Language and Well-Being at Work Among Transgender Employees in Australia, 2020

Objectives. To provide empirical evidence of the positive effects of exposure to inclusive language on trans employees’ well-being.

Methods. We leveraged unique data from a large Australian national survey of workplace diversity and inclusion (2020 Australian Workplace Equality Index Employee Survey), focusing on a subset of trans respondents (n = 453). We derived self-reported and aggregate-level measures of exposure to trans-inclusive language and created a multidimensional index of employee well-being. We examined their relationships using fully adjusted random-intercept multilevel regression models.

Results. We found strong, positive, and statistically significant associations between different indicators of exposure to inclusive language at work and trans employees’ well-being. These relationships were large in magnitude and emerged in the presence of an encompassing set of sociodemographic and workplace controls, including other markers of workplace diversity and inclusion (e.g., victimization experiences and identity disclosure).

Conclusions. Our results provide robust evidence indicating that efforts to foster inclusive language at work can yield substantial, positive effects on trans people’s feelings of belonging and inclusion, thereby contributing to their overall socioeconomic integration. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):482–490.)

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The Road less Travelled: using Administrative Data to Understand Inequalities by Sexual Orientation.

Understanding the processes contributing to equality of opportunity and outcomes in contemporary societies is at the core of the discipline of sociology. This paper illustrates the value of administrative data to underpin research aimed at identifying, monitoring, and addressing socio-economic disparities between population groups. To accomplish this, I draw on three case studies of recent empirical research leveraging administrative data to examine pro-cesses contributing to the (re)production of inequalities by sexual orientation. Collectively, the three case studies exemplify how data sources that fall within the broad category of ‘administrative data’ can help social researchers generate new, policy-relevant knowledge on socio-economic inequalities, as well as robust information to contextualize public and legislative debate. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promises and challenges of using administrative data to understand inequalities by sexual orientation, as well as inequalities between other minority and majority groups.
Keywords –Equality, transparency, positive duties, mainstreaming

Perales, F. (2021). “The Road less Travelled: using Administrative Data to Understand Inequalities by Sexual Orientation.” Law in Context, 37 (2)

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You, Me, and Them: Understanding Employees’ Use of Trans-Affirming Language within the Workplace

Francisco Perales · Christine Ablaza · Wojtek Tomaszewski · Dawn Emsen‑Hough

Journal: Sexuality Research and Social Policy

DOI: 10.1007/s13178-021-00592-9

Publication Date: 2021-05-31


As the benefits of workplace inclusion become progressively recognized, employers are making greater efforts to cultivate inclusive organizational environments where employees from diverse backgrounds can thrive. Yet academic research has often neglected issues of sexual orientation and gender diversity. We contribute to redressing this knowledge gap by examining processes of workplace inclusion for employees with diverse genders and sexualities, focusing on an under-researched area—the role of language.


Using a regression framework, we empirically examine how different individual and workplace factors are associated with employees’ inclusive language use toward their trans- and gender-diverse colleagues. To accomplish this, we undertook the first-ever analyses of unique survey data from the 2020 Australian Workplace Equality Index Employee Survey (n~27,000 employees and~150 employers).


Our results highlight the role of employees’ socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., their gender and sexual orientation, age, education, and religiosity) as well as the role of features of the workplace environment (e.g., employer’s size, location, and inclusion culture).


While use of appropriate language toward individuals with diverse genders and sexualities constitutes an important stepping stone to their workplace inclusion, this study has demonstrated that its adoption remains incomplete and highly segmented.

Social Policy Implications

These findings bear important implications for the design, targeting, and implementation of programs aimed at fostering trans-affirming language and the workplace inclusion of individuals from sexual and gender minorities.
Keywords Diversity · Inclusion · Language · Transgender · Gender diversity · Workplace

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Improving the wellbeing of LGBTQ+ employees: Do workplace diversity training and ally networks make a difference?

Francisco Perales


Despite growing recognition that lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and other minority (LGBTQ+) employees have lower levels of workplace wellbeing than cis-gender heterosexual employees, few studies have examined how different workplace interventions may mitigate these disparities. This study provides first-time evidence of associations between LGBTQ+ employee wellbeing and two types of initiatives that have received substantial public attention and employer uptake: workplace gender and sexuality diversity training and ally (or employee) networks. To accomplish this, the analyses leverage Australian data from a unique, national employer-employee survey of workplace inclusion (2020 Australian Workplace Equality Index Employee Survey; n = 31,277). These data were used to derive individual- as well as organizational-level measures of diversity training and ally behaviors, and to estimate their associations with a multidimensional index of LGBTQ+ employee wellbeing using fully adjusted random-intercept multilevel regression models. The results indicated that all individual- and organizational-level measures of workplace diversity training and ally behaviors exhibited positive, large, and statistically significant associations with the LGBTQ+ employee wellbeing index, controlling for an extensive set of confounds and organization-specific random effects. These findings have significant implications for health policy and practice. Specifically, they indicate that diversity training and ally networks may improve wellbeing amongst LGBTQ+ employees. This suggests that employer investments in diversity training and ally networks are effective interventions to enhance workplace culture, employee productivity and intergroup relations.